It surrounds the cities of Seoul and Incheon and borders with Hwanghae-do (North Korea) in the north, Gangwon-do in the east, Chungcheongnam-do in the south and the Yellow Sea in the west. Gyeonggi-do is the land where people have settled down since prehistoric times as it has a fertile plain along the Hangang River.
This fact is proven by the evidence that has been uncovered at Paleolithic sites in Jeongok-ri, Yeoncheon-gun, in Neolithic sites in Misa-dong, Hanam-si, and in various sites from the Bronze Age.
it is believed that Jin Country was located in the northern region of Gyeonggi-do. Since then, the Gyeonggi-do region came under the Mahan Confederacy and about ten small nations were located in Gyeonggi-do among 54 small nations of the Mahan Confederacy.
The political and strategic importance of Gyeonggi-do has remained unchanged since King Onjo, the founder of Baekje, which designated Wirye Castle in Hanam as the seat of the provincial government in 18 B.C. By the mid-5th century, this Hangang River basin had merged with Goguryeo and became the territory of Silla in 553 (14th year of King Jinheung). Thereafter, the unified Silla divided the country into 9 states and established the state of Hansan in the Gyeonggi-do region.
Meanwhile, this region was under the control of Gungye in the post three-nation period. The Gyeonggi-do region has emerged as the center stage of Korean history as King Taejo Wang Geon of Goryeo designated Gaeseong as the royal capital.
The name Gyeonggi-do came from the administrative jurisdiction with the same name in the Goryeo Period.
It built 6 Jeokhyeon and 7 Gihyeon around Gaeseong in 995 (14th year of King Seongjong, Goryeo).
In 1018 (9th year of King Hyeongjong, Goryeo), these two Hyeon were combined and officially named Gyeonggi, the outskirts of the capital city.
and Gi meant “393 km of land in the four directions from the residence of the king.”
The name “Gyeonggi” originated from the Tang Dynasty when it ruled the region around the capital in Gyeonghyeon and Gihyeon.
In 1069 (the 23 year of King Munjong, Goryeo), Gyeonggi was expanded to a total of 52 Hyeon, adding 39 Hyeon transferred from Yanggwang, Gyoju,
Seohaedo and the original 13 Hyeon.
Before long, the region of Gyeonggi has been reduced to the size that it was during the King Hyeonjong period of the Goryeo Dynasty.
In 1390 (the second year of King Gongyang, Goryeo), Gyeonggi was reformed to its size in 1069 (the 23rd year of King Munjong, Goryeo) with 44 Hyeon in total and became the first provincial organization.
At that time, Gyeonggi was ruled by divided into Left Province and the Right Province administrations.
Joseon designated Hanyang as the new capital and reorganized the region of Gyeonggi according to the distance.
During the reign of King Taejong and Sejong, the region was renamed as Gyeonggi after the Left and Right Provinces were combined.
The previous northwestern part that consisted of Suan, Gokju, and Yeonan came under Punghae-do (Hwanghae-do) while the southeastern part that included Suwon, Yeoju, and Anseong were transferred to Gyeonggi to become its current jurisdiction.